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If magma intruded and melted a vertical pipe through the overlying glacier, the partially molten mass would cool as a large block with gravity flattening its upper surface to form a flat-topped, steep-sided subglacial volcano called a tuya.

While still in graduate school in 1947, Canadian geologist William Henry Mathews coined the term "tuya" to refer to these distinctive volcanic formations and was one of the first people on Earth to describe in detail these types of subglacial volcanoes.

Subglacial eruptions occur when lava erupts under large portions of glacial ice.

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The main phenomenons during Hawaiian eruptions is steady lava fountaining and the production of thin lava flows that eventually build up into large, broad shield volcanoes.If magma is included, the term phreatomagmatic may be used.Phreatomagmatic eruptions occasionally create broad, low-relief volcanic craters called maars.This then exposes new lava at the surface that cools into a new crustal layer which will again fracture into slabs and be recycled into the circulating lava beneath the crust.The temperature of the rock fragments can range from cold to incandescent.

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