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Given the increasing popularity of the free R software for statistical analysis, boot Res should facilitate both using R as a computational environment among tree-ring scientists and implementing new approaches to dendroclimatic calibration. In recent years, tree-ring anatomical structure (conduit size, density, cell wall thickness, ray abundance, etc.) has been recognized as a novel source of valuable ecological information.However, despite the high potential interest, these kinds of investigations have been significantly constrained by the methodological limitations and time-consuming procedures of data collection.While ROXAS was previously used exclusively for angiosperm analysis, we demonstrate in this paper for the first time how it can also be used to analyze an entire sample of a conifer wood.The use of ROXAS for the analysis of conifer anatomy is exemplified by a 120-year long Pinus leucodermis sample including about 75,000 tracheid cells.SF RCS is superior to simple RCS and in all cases examined.

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While both approaches proved to be efficient, the quality of the fully automatic tracheid detection is found to be generally sufficient for most research applications.Our results suggest that CMORs can be associated with a cambium that may be inactive, yet functional, for up to 18 years.We conclude that CMORs can occur in a wide variety of species, growth forms and biomes, suggesting a general strategy of woody plant growth.Based on the results of the tests explored here, we conclude that Signal-Free RCS should be used as the standard method of RCS processing. Mediterranean environments are of special interest for the study of the relationships between climate, growth and anatomic features.Dendrochronological techniques were applied at eight sampling sites that were selected throughout the natural distribution area of Pinus halepensis in the Iberian Peninsula.

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